Prior to 1990, most foreign investment in
The major sources of foreign investment in
In the eyes of foreign investors,
The Taiwanese government's administrative policies are mainly directed towards economic liberalisation and internationalisation. In recent years,
In Eastern Asia, with islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China
22.6 million (2005 est.)
Mandarin Chinese is the official language; Taiwanese and Hakka dialects are also used
Mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%
US$349.8 billion (2005 est.)
GDP per capita
GDP Growth Rate
3.8% (2005 est.)
New Taiwan Dollar (NT$)
General Business Hours
Banks open from 9am to 3.30pm on Mondays to Fridays and from 9am to noon on Saturdays. Office and businesses operate from 9am, but end later at 5.30pm, with some operating half-day on Saturdays. Departmental stores open daily from 10.30am to 9.30pm. Government offices operate from 8.30 am to 5.30 pm on weekdays, and from 8.30am to 12.30pm on Saturdays.
GMT + 8 hours
To establish a company, investors should first submit the name chosen for their company to the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), for verification and recording.
For investments in ordinary industrial zones (excluding export processing zones and science-based industrial parks), investors should file their application with the Investment Commission, MOEA (MOEA). The application forms have a standard format and must be in Chinese, and may be accompanied by translated versions if necessary.
Timelines for approval are as follows:
Investments or capital increases that involve no more than NT$500 million and are not in areas listed in the Negative List for Investment
Average 2 days
Investments or capital increases that involve NT$500 million or more and are not in areas listed in the Negative List for Investment by Overseas Chinese and Foreign Nationals
Average 3 days
Investment or capital increase cases that involve NT$1 billion or more and are in areas listed in the Negative List for Investment by Overseas Chinese and Foreign Nationals
Average 3 weeks
After receiving approval, investors can use their letter of approval to apply for inward remittance of capital. After the completion of capital verification by the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, they can then carry out company registration, business registration, and application for factory construction and utilities.
The capital of
This oil-based economy has strong government controls over major economic activities.
The vastness of the Saudi marketplace, the strong purchasing power, and the high consumption rate of the Saudi populace are all positive factors contributing to the existence of a healthy and competitive investment climate in the Kingdom. In addition to the fact that the Saudi market is expanding and will continue to expand due to the rapidly growing population and the immense volume of foreign imports into the Kingdom. The relative stability of the Saudi Riyal vis-a-vis the other foreign currencies (the Riyal has remained fixed at 3.75 per dollar for a considerable period) and the non-existence of any restrictive foreign exchange policies are factors enhancing the investment environment in the Kingdom.
Head of State
King and Prime Minister Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud
Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of
24.6 million (2005 est.)
US$307.9 billion (2005 est.)
GDP per capita
US$12,900 (2005 est)
GDP Growth Rate
6.5% (2005 est.)
Saudi Riyal (SR)
1 US Dollar = 3.75 Saudi Riyal (2005 est.)
Harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature
Because a great deal of business in
Most businesses require some form of license from the Saudi Arabian Government, and some require the investment or employment of Saudi citizens. The optimal form will depend on a variety of factors, including the type of business, the duration of the involvement, and the nature of the transactions.
A branch office involves a more direct presence than a commercial agent. As with the commercial agent regulation, the branch office regulations are currently under review. Under current regulations, the branch office is largely restricted to an administrative role and may not engage in trading activities. Nevertheless, a branch office can be very useful as a liaison presence for a
The simplest form of doing business in
A commercial agent may be more familiar with the local market and may be able to facilitate certain transactions. A company should choose its agent carefully; terminating or changing agents can be a difficult process.
The term "commercial agent" describes a variety of roles and responsibilities. Some commercial agents sell goods; others sell services. Some commercial agents buy goods directly from the manufacturer and resell them; others sell goods for the manufacturer and receive a commission. All are covered by commercial agency law in
A foreign company first selects the commercial agent, which may be an individual or a company. The commercial agent also must have the appropriate license. The
The Saudi Ministry of Commerce must approve the agreement. The Ministry provides a model agency agreement (see below), but most western companies find it necessary to amend and augment the model agreement. A company can negotiate its own agreement, but the Ministry is more likely to approve one that resembles the model agreement.
Any termination or change of a commercial agent must be fair to the old agent. Under some circumstances, the failure to renew an agent may be considered a form of termination. Wrongfully terminating an agent may expose a company to liability and may make it more difficult to obtain government approval of a replacement agency agreement. As a result, the termination section of any agency agreement must be carefully spelled out and should generally provide for fair treatment of all parties upon termination.
The land which is occupied by present day Kuwait was formerly part of the Arab empire of Medieval Kenda that dominated the region from 3-5th century A.D. Kuwait later became part of the Carmathian Empire from the 9-11th centuries. Following that, the region was divided into a number of tribal emirates. The presence of the Al-Sabah family, which has been ruling
Like its neighbors in the Gulf region,
The Kuwaiti economy grew by an impressive 4.2% in 2003, driven by higher oil revenues and increased government expenditure. One sector to look out for in the Kuwaiti economy is the construction industry, with an increase in housing and residential projects, as well as extension of the road network and water treatment facilities. Oil related infrastructure has also been dynamic, expanding as major projects to upgrade existing plants and equipment are being pursued. The country is also looking towards developing its potentially large gas resources, to increase the production and consumption of natural gas and related industries.
The government is keen to encourage greater private sector participation and foreign investment in the economy, and this was made possible via the foreign investment law of 2001, which gained implementation status in 2003. The new law facilitates up to 100% foreign ownership in certain sectors and eases the requirements for foreign labour.
Amir Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al
Nominal constitutional monarchy
Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between
2.9 million (2005 est.)
Muslim 85% (Sunni 70%, Shi'a 30%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and Others 15%
Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, Others 7%
US$71.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP Per Capita
US$22,100 (2005 est.)
GDP Growth Rate
4.8% (2005 est.)
Kuwaiti Dinar (KD)
1 US Dollar = 0.292 Kuwaiti Dinar
Dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
General Business Hours
Govt Offices: Mon-Wed 7am-2pm
Banks: Sun-Thurs 7.30am-2.30pm
Businesses: Sat-Wed 8am-7pm
GMT + 3 hours
3.6% (2005 est.)
2.2% (2004 est.)
Petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing, construction materials
Oil and refined products, fertilizers
Food, construction materials, vehicles and parts, clothing
Major Trading Partners
Japan, South Korea, United States, Germany, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom